آکادمی پویاروشان - دکتر عطایی - شرطی نوع سوم

نوع سوم جملات شرطی

حالت

در جمله شرطی(CONDITIONAL) نوع سوم، زمان عبارت شرطی گذشته کامل، و زمان عبارت اصلی، کامل شرطی یا کامل استمراری شرطی است(if).

If clause 

(بند شرطی) 

Main clause

(بند اصلی)  

  If + Past perfect

 (اگر + گذشته کامل)  

 perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional

(کامل شرطی یا کامل استمراری شرطی)    

If this thing had happened  

That thing would have happened

 

مثال:

  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn’t lied to me before.
  • If you hadn’t lied to me before, I would have believed you.

 

کارایی

شرطی نوع سه به موقعیتی غیرممکن در گذشته و نتایج احتمالی اش در گذشته اشاره دارد. این جملات کاملا فرضی و غیرواقعی هستند، چون الان برای وجود آن موقعیت و نتایجش خیلی دیر است. جملات شرطی نوعی سوم همیشه مفهوم پشیمانی دارند. واقعیت برعکس یا برخلاف چیزی است که در جمله بیان شده. در جملات شرطی نوع سه، زمان گذشته بوده و موقعیت فرضی است.
برای درک بهتر شرطی نوع سوم به نمودار زمانی زیر توجه کنید:

اکادمی پویاروشان - دکتر عطایی - شرطی نوع سوم

شرطی نوع سوم

مثال:

  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn’t work hard, and I didn’t pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn’t know and I didn’t bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn’t call me and I am not happy.)

 

در جملات شرطی نوع سه به جای would میتوانید از افعال ناقص استفاده کنید تا میزان جدیت، اجازه یا پیشنهادی در مورد نتیجه را نشان دهید.

مثال:

  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.

 

اختصارها

would و had هر دو میتوانند به شکل ‘d مختصر شوند، که اگر جملات شرطی نوع سه را بلد نباشید میتواند شما را گیج کند. دو قانون را به یاد داشته باشید:

  1. Would هرگز در عبارت شرطی ظاهر نمی شود، پس اگر ‘d را در عبارت شرطی دیدید، حتما مختصر شده had است.
  2. هیچگاه had قبل از have ظاهر نمی شود، پس اگر ‘d با یک ضمیر قبل از have ظاهر شود، حتما مختصر شده would است.

مثال:

  • If I’d known you were in hospital, I’d have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I’d have bought you a present if I’d known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you’d given me your e-mail, I’d have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

 

زمان شرطی کامل

شرطی کامل از هر فعلی دارای سه جزء است:

Would + have + اسم مفعول
Have همراه با اسم مفعول در ساختارهای دیگری هم به کار می رود. به آن “مصدر کامل” می گویند.

 

+Past Participle

(صفت مفعولی)

Have+ 

 Would +

(فاعل) Subject 

gone 

have 

would

He

stayed  

  have  

would

They 

 

 

TO GO: PERFECT CONDITIONAL

     Interrogative Negative

(پرسشی منفی)

       Interrogative

(پرسشی)

Negative

(منفی)

Affirmative

(مثبت)

Wouldn’t I have gone?

Would you have gone?

I wouldn’t have gone

I would have gone

Wouldn’t you have gone?

Would you have gone?

You wouldn’t have gone

You would have gone

Wouldn’t he have gone?

Would he have gone?

He wouldn’t have gone

He would have gone

Wouldn’t she have gone?

Would she have gone?

She wouldn’t have gone

She would have gone

Wouldn’t we have gone?

Would we have gone?

We wouldn’t have gone

We would have gone

Wouldn’t they have gone?

Would they have gone?

They wouldn’t have gone

They would have gone

 

اکادمی پویاروشان - دکتر عطایی

 

اگر علاقه مند به مطالعه بیشتر در مورد حالت های دیگر (زمان های شرطی ) هستید، اینجا کلیک کنید 

 

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