قید جمله

بعضی قیدها به کلمه یا صفت یا قیدی اشاره ندارند و جمله ای را توصیف می کنند. این ها، قید جمله یا قید دیدگاه نام دارند و نقطه نظری در جمله را بیان می کنند و نگرش نویسنده یا سخنگو را درباره ی موضع خاصی بیان می کنند. 

  • قیدهای جمله معمولا در ابتدای جملات قرار می گیرند. این قیدها معمولا با ly- به پایان می رسند و بعد از آن ها یک ویرگول (،) اضافه می شود. به جملات زیر توجه کنید: 

Clearly, there have been unacceptable delays.   .به طور آشکار، تاخیرهای غیر  قابل قبولی رخ داده است

Sadly, the forests are now under threat.                              .متاسفانه، جنگل ها امروزه تهدید می شوند

Curiously, he never visited America.                                   .به طور عجیبی، او هرگز از آمریکا دیدن نکرد

 

  • قیدهای بالا با قرار گرفتن در ابتدای جمله تاکید شدیدی بر روی آشکار بودن، تاسف داشتن از مساله ای و یا متعجب بودن از موضوعی دارند. اگر به همان گونه که در جملات زیر مشاهده می کنید، جای قیدها را تغییر دهیم معنای جملات بالا و جملات پایین از همدیگر تفکیک می شوند.

او با وضوح و با ایستادگی صحبت کرد. .She spoke clearly and with conviction

او با ناراحتی لبخند زد.                                                           .She smiled sadly

او با کنجکاوی به او نگاه کرد.                                   .He looked at her curiously

 

  • در مثال های زیر قید های عقیده و اظهار نظر در جایگاه های مناسبی در جمله قرار داده شده اند. وقتی که جایگذاری در جمله خیلی غیر طبیعی و با آب و تاب یا خیلی رسمی برای زبان محاوره ای باشد، آن جای گذاری با علامت ” *” نشان گذاری می شود.

“برای نمایش کامل محتوای این جدول آنرا به سمت چپ و راست بکشید” 

Viewpoint or commenting adverb

At the start of a sentence

(ابتدای جمله)

Before the main verb

(قبل از فعل اصلی)

At the end of a sentence

(انتهای جمله)

clearly Clearly, he doesn’t know what he is doing. He clearly doesn’t know what he is doing. He doesn’t know what he is doing, clearly.
obviously Obviously, you are acting silly. You are obviously acting silly You are acting silly, obviously.
personally Personally, I’d rather go by train. I’d personally rather go by train. I’d rather go by train, personally.
presumably Presumably, he didn’t have time to go to the post office. He presumably didn’t have time to go to the post office. He didn’t have time to go to the post office, presumably.
seriously Seriously, I can’t give this speech. seriously can’t give this speech. I can’t give this speech, seriously.
surely Surely you tried to get here on time. You surely tried to get here on time. You tried to get here on time, surely.
technically Technically, we cannot fly to Mars and back. We technically cannot fly to Mars and back. We cannot fly to Mars and back, technically.
undoubtedly Undoubtedly, he has a good reason not to come. He undoubtedly has a good reason not to come. He has a good reason not to come, undoubtedly.
bravely Bravely, I kept on walking. bravely kept on walking. *I kept on walking, bravely.
carelessly Carelessly, she threw her book into the pond. She carelessly threw her book into the pond. *She threw her book into the pond, carelessly.
certainly Certainly, you should be there. You certainly should be there. / You should certainly be there. You should be there, certainly.
cleverly Cleverly, Sally hid the jellybeans. Sally cleverly hid the jellybeans. *Sally hid the jellybeans, cleverly.
definitely *Definitely, you are smart. You definitely are smart. / You are definitely smart. *You are smart, definitely.
foolishly Foolishly, they cried out. They foolishly cried out. They cried out, foolishly.
generously Generously, he donated the money. He generously donated the money. *He donated the money, generously.
stupidly Stupidly, they played in the street. They stupidly played in the street. *They played in the street, stupidly.
obviously Obviously, we are lost. We are obviously lost. / *We obviously are lost. We are lost, obviously.
kindly Kindly, she fed the cat first. She kindly fed the cat first. She fed the cat first, kindly.
luckily Luckily, you got here on time. You luckily got here on time. You got here on time, luckily.
fortunately Fortunately, we found the boat. We, fortunately, found the boat. We found the boat, fortunately.
naturally Naturally, you cannot be in the circus now. You naturally cannot be in the circus now. You cannot be in the circus now, naturally.
wisely Wisely, she stayed home to take a nap. She wisely stayed home to take a nap. She stayed home to take a nap, wisely.
confidentially Confidentially, I never gave him the envelope.   I never gave him the envelope, confidentially.
theoretically Theoretically, we could send astronauts to Mars. We could theoretically send astronauts to Mars. / We theoretically could send astronauts to Mars. We could send astronauts to Mars, theoretically.
truthfully Truthfully, I don’t like chocolate much. truthfully don’t like chocolate much. I don’t like chocolate much, truthfully.
disappointingly Disappointingly, she got fourth place. She disappointingly got fourth place. She got fourth place, disappointingly.
thoughtfully Thoughtfully, I turned away. thoughtfully turned away. I turned away, thoughtfully.
simply *Simply, I don’t want to come. simply don’t want to come.  
unbelievably Unbelievably, she showed up late again. She unbelievably showed up late again. She showed up late again, unbelievably.
unfortunately Unfortunately, there is no more room. There is, unfortunately, no more room. / There, unfortunately, is no more room. There is no more room, unfortunately.

 

 

اکادمی پویاروشان - دکتر عطایی

 

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